By Priyanka Saurabh
The whole world is struggling with the Coronavirus crisis at this time and till now its vaccine has not been detected. The confirmed cases of Kovid-19 cases are steadily increasing around the world, with scientists moving forward with efforts to develop vaccines and treatments to slow the epidemic and reduce disease losses. The virus spreads easily and most of the world’s population is still sensitive to it. A vaccine will provide some protection by fighting against the virus by strengthening people’s immune systems so that they do not become ill. This allows the lockdown to be lifted more safely. The world is dealing with an unprecedented and unimaginable grave crisis. Therefore, the pace of vaccine development is important.
Experts believe that genome sequencing of new coronaviruses provided by scientists in China shows that it accounts for 79 percent of the same genetic material with the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and 50 percent of the Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS). Is associated with, which infects a human, bats, and camels. Australia’s National Science Agency announced earlier this month that it had begun pre-clinical trials of the vaccine developed by the University of Oxford.
Research is taking place at a fast pace. Around 80 groups worldwide are researching vaccines and some are now entering clinical trials. Synthetic biology is being used to deliver a large number of sample vaccines, virus genetic material (RNA, DNA) based on various vaccine platforms or to produce key viral proteins, out of the eight trials currently enrolling, Only three are in stage 2. The first human test for a vaccine was announced last month by scientists in Seattle. Unusually, they are abandoning any animal research to test its safety or effectiveness. In Oxford, the first human trials in Europe have started with more than 800 people, with half being given the Kovid-19 vaccine and the rest. Controls will receive vaccines that protect against meningitis, but not coronaviruses.
Another vaccine developed jointly by the Chinese Academy of Military Medical Sciences and Casino Biologics has reportedly been approved for early-stage clinical trials in which more than 100 healthy volunteers are scheduled to receive the vaccine. Australian scientists have begun injecting ferrets with two possible vaccines. This is the first comprehensive clinical trial involving animals. However, no one knows how effective any of these vaccines will be.
Vaccine testing usually begins with animal and laboratory testing before going into various stages of human testing. Phase one trials are small-scale, typically involving some participants, to evaluate whether the vaccine is safe for humans. Phase two trials often involve several hundred subjects, and primarily evaluate the vaccine’s efficacy against the disease, with the final stage involving thousands to assess the efficacy of the vaccine over a defined period, Even after vaccine preparation, there are several challenges, including whether the vaccine will be effective in a large population.
All countries joining hands to find a vaccine for Kovid-19 are eyeing India’s vaccine manufacturing powerhouse. India produces 60 percent of the world’s vaccines and accounts for 60–80 percent of the United Nations’ annual vaccine procurement. Over the years, many Indian companies have helped in the production and distribution of vaccines worldwide.
Six Indian companies are working on a vaccine for Kovid-19, which is joining global efforts to find an instant deterrent to the deadly infection that is spreading rapidly around the world. About 70 ‘vaccine trials are being tested and at least three of them have gone into a human clinical trial phase, but the vaccine for coronavirus is unlikely to be ready for mass use before 2021.
At least four drugs are undergoing synthesis and examination by reusing existing drugs, new drugs and molecules are being developed by high-performance computational contact with laboratory testing, common anti-viral extracts of the plant, and products Properties are being investigated. Many academic research institutes and start-ups have developed new tests. The capacity of the tests has been greatly enhanced by adding laboratories across the country.
About 90 percent of the vaccines of an established global network company are sold in low-middle-income countries. India owns 160 global patents and sells products in more than 65 countries. India should play a leading role in the production of Corona vaccines. The strategic approach to vaccine development by Indian biotech companies rests on collaboration with academics, universities, research organizations, and virologists. Once hinges are developed, Indian companies have mastered the art of accelerating mass production and distribution worldwide. See the case of the Rotavac vaccine for the “rotavirus” infection, India was able to manufacture and sell in 2013 at about one-fifteenth of the then market cost.
Some early, but limited, studies in China have suggested that monkeys can be infected with this virus, but can be prevented from re-infection. How long acquired immunity in humans lasts is another important question that must be asked before moving on to experimental vaccines. We will need to know this because if immunity is transient, then humans will be susceptible to infections.
Before proceeding to phase-II trials of a large number of healthy volunteers, we must also ensure that immunization-induced immune responses do not cause any disease outgrowth, as seen in some experimental vaccine cases against the dengue virus. And even in animal studies with an experimental vaccine against the SARS virus, given the urgency of finding a cure, it is necessary to find out clearly what works well and what does not. Conducting a carefully controlled randomized trial is the only way to do this.
In a welcome move, the World Health Organization has announced clinical trials called the ‘Solidarity Project’. Under this, four drugs or drug combinations will be tested in many countries around the world. These candidates include anti-Ebola medication with or without Ebola-beta, Remedisvir, chloroquine, anti-HIV drugs, and ritonavir/lopinavir combination. But there is good news in India about Kovid-19. More than 30 vaccines are in various stages of development in India and some of them are ready for trial. The way Indian scientists and industry have come forward in this matter is commendable. Only with this attitude and fundamental work can the country become superior in the field of science.